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The towns or Indian groups (usually having the same name) located on this map were taken from John Smith’s Map of Virginia. Smith created the map in 1608 from two voyages he took up and down the rivers that feed the
Working under contract to Virtual Jamestown, geographer Mike Smith and students at
Towns were chosen primarily on the basis of the quantity of data available on Smith’s towns. Students used research data from the Virginia Department of Historic Resources and secondary sources. In addition, courtesy of a special Google Earth (GE) Education Initiative (GE provided each student in the class with a license to Google Earth Pro), students could add their findings to the map. GE Pro allowed students to create pop-up windows of information on their assigned group according to a template with the following features: name, alternative names, meaning of name, geographical coordinates, distance from Werowocomoco, population with dates and sources, language group, link to report, and notes.
We have compiled them into a single kmz file (Google Earth file).
In November 1682 the
. . . all servants except Turks and Moores . . . whether Negroes, Moors, Mollattoes or Indians, who and whose parentage and Native country are not Christian at the time of their first purchase of such servant by some Christian, although afterwards, and before such their importation and bringing into this country they shall be converted to the Christian faith; and all Indians which shall hereafter be sold by our neighbouring Indians, or any other trafiqueing with us as for slaves are hereby adjudged, deemed and taken to be slaves to all intents and purposes, any law, usage or custom to the countrary [Hening 1809-1823:II:491-492]
Thus, all who were sold as slaves were considered slaves, whether or not they had been converted to Christianity. Moreover, Indians and other non-whites were considered slaves if they had been imported or sold as such. The new law also declared that Indian maid servants who were age 16 or older were considered tithables, i.e., they were considered taxable personal property.